However, since the Freundlich equation was found to describe more accurately the sorption phenomenon, the Clark model could be more appropriate for the approximation of the C. crinitophylla packed bed column system. The Clark model parameters can be seen in Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5. The model produces breakthrough values in good agreement-even though slightly underestimated-with the experimental values for all conditions tested, close to those ABT-199 produced by the Thomas model ( Table 3). R2 values are high, slightly higher than those of the Thomas model, indicating oviducts the Clark model is suitable for the prediction of the C. crinitophylla packed bed column system. r values, representing the mass transfer coefficient, show a significant increase with increasing flow rates ( Table 5), but do not show significant variations for either different feed concentrations or bed heights. Overall, the Clark model is also found suitable of approximating the experimental data and could be used effectively for the determination of the optimum working parameters when designing a C. crinitophylla packed bed column configuration.
Fig. 1. Molecular weight distribution of SMPs under various conditions. (NS = normal state, HA = high ammonia content, HS = high salinity, HM = high level of heavy metal, HT = high temperature.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
3.3. DBPs and TOX concentrations of SMPs after chlorination
Concentrations of C-DBPs and N-DBPs in SMPs after chlorination under various conditions VX-765 presented in Figs. 2(A)–(D) and 3, respectively. After chlorination, several major C-DBPs including four THMs (TCM, BDCM, DBCM and TBM, Fig. 2A), one CS (CTC, Fig. 2B), five HAAs (BDCAA, TCAA, DCAA, MCAA and BCAA, Fig. 2C) and two HKs (TCP and DCP, Fig. 2D) were detected. While the species of C-DBPs formed were almost the same under different conditions, the levels of each of them were different under different conditions.
Fig. 2. (A)–(D) C-DBPs of SMPs under various conditions. Error bars represent the standard deviation based on triplicate analyses. (NS = normal state, HA = high ammonia content, HS = high salinity, HM = high level of heavy metal, HT = high temperature.)Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Next, the performance of the model ABT-538 discussed in more detail. Fig. 7 corresponds to the experiment at 3600 ppm methane and 300 s switching time. These conditions lead to stable operation, but are close to the limit of instability (Fig. 2). The model predicts the oscillations of temperature caused by the periodic change in the flow direction, and the greatest discrepancies are observed in the middle of the bed.
Fig. 7. Validation of the mathematical model for the RFR with integrated adsorption. Evolution of temperature at different catalytic bed positions: experiments () and simulations (). yG0 = 3600 ppm, tsw = 300 s.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
When decreasing switching time to 100 s, Fig. 8, temperature increases at the beginning of the test due to the accumulation of heat. After some cycles, temperature decreases to the pseudo-steady state value, resulting in stable reactor operation. On the contrary, when the concentration of methane is decreased to 1800 ppm (switching time 300 s), Fig. 9, the reactor is unstable and temperature decreases progressively towards extinction. The model is capable of predicting also the temperature evolution in this unstable experiment.
All wood-rot fungi growing in OMW effectively reduced phenol content in the effluent (more than 60% reduction of total phenolics), with the exception of L. castoreus, P. chrysosporium and T. panuoides strains, which decreased phenolics to a lesser degree ( Fig. 2). All Pleurotus species tested were top degraders of phenolics by exhibiting decrease of pertinent values by up to 95% (i.e. P. ostreatus LGAM015). Very high reductions (>80%) in total phenolics were also observed for several other white-rot fungi, e.g. A. biennis, D. quercina, H. erinaceus (strain LGAM311), H. lateritium, I. andersonii, T. hirsuta, T. versicolor and T. lacteus ( Fig. 2), thus evidencing that within this group of microorganisms there is a Darunavir of strains particularly effective in degrading phenolic compounds. As regards to OMW decolorization, most of the tested strains presented a similar behavior to that exhibited for dephenolization ( Fig. 3). Hence, Pleurotus species, A. biennis, D. quercina, H. erinaceus (strain LGAM311), I. andersonii, T. hirsuta and T. versicolor were the top color reducers (55–70% color decrease in respect to the control). The ability of Pleurotus and Trametes spp. for decolorizing OMW is well established ( Dhouib et al., 2006 and Ntougias et al., 2012); all other species have not been previously examined for OMW treatment. On the other hand, an increase in the color of the medium was observed in the cultures of L. castoreus and T. panuoides ( Fig. 3), most probably because of oxidation of phenolic compounds ( Thurston, 1994) and the absence of any notable enzymatic activities in these particular strains ( Fig. 4). A significant correlation was revealed between total phenolic content and OMW color (r = 0.875, p < 0.01) ( Table 1), which is in accordance with the outcome of past studies on other white-rot fungi ( Koutrotsios and Zervakis, 2014 and Sayadi et al., 2000), confirming thus that for this group of organisms OMW decolorization is mainly achieved through dephenolization of the effluent.
Fig. 12. Comparison between the calculated and experimental vapour quality at the onset of the dryout for the correlation of Mori et al.  and of Padovan et al. . HF Z-IETD-FMK expressed in (kW m−2).Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The heat transfer coefficients have been compared against the values estimated by a correlation recently proposed by the present authors . Fig. 13 reports the comparison among experimental and empirical values for R1234yf and R134a. R134a data are taken from Mancin et al. . This correlation is subatomic particles an updated version of the original model by Cavallini et al. , then modified by Padovan et al. . The model is valid for D = 3.4 mm, for vapour qualities prior to the onset of the dryout, and for mass velocity from 150 to 940 kg m−2 s−1. The correlation well predicts the experimental values, with mean, absolute, and standard deviations of 1.7%, 4.9%, and 6.0%, respectively, for R1234yf, and of 3.3%, 7.5%, and 8.5%, respectively, for R134a.
Characteristics of selected projects and Carbenoxolone results from questionnaire survey.ProjectsSuinig to Guang'anXuyong to GulinZigong to LongchangGeneral results from questionnaireTerrainHeavy hillMountainHeavy hillAll types of terrain been coveredProportion of bridge and tunnels14.69%56.92%9.57%63% below 30%; 31% between 30% and 50%; 6% between 50% and 70%Non-linear coefficient126.96.36.1997% between 1.0 and 1.2; 31% between 1.2 and 1.4; 16% between 1.4 and 1.6; 16% above 1.6Proportion of special subgrade20.60%39.29%19.21%33% between 15% and 25%; 47% between 25% and 35%; 20% between 35% and 45%Transport distance of materials80 km100 km/7% below 50 km; 33% between 50 km and 100 km; 40% between 100 km and 150 km; 20% above 150 kmThickness of base and subcase level56 cm56 cm56 cm6% below 40 cm; 37% between 40 cm and 55 cm; 44% between 55 cm and 70 cm; 13% between 70 cm and 85 cmThickness of asphalt surface18 cm18 cm18 cm44% between 10 cm and 15 cm; 56% between 15 cm and 20 cmFull-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
In this paper, possible business models that demand side management (DSM) providers can adopt relative to different electricity market stakeholders are discussed. DSM resources are divided into StemRegenin 1 efficiency (EE) and demand response (DR) resources, and the electricity market is segmented into system operation, generation, transmission and distribution, retailing and load segments. For each business model, three groups of characteristics are analyzed: DSM transaction characteristics, renewable energy correlation and DSM load control characteristics.
As the next step, niche is proposed to determine the prevailing technical, regulatory and financial risks for each business model as well as possible solutions considering different market designs. Additionally, it is recommended to perform a more in depth study of how the proliferation of prosumers and electric vehicles can influence DSM business models.
AcknowledgmentThe ideas, judgments, claims and comments in this paper are solely of the author and by no means represent those of Panasonic Corporation.